What is "clean room"
Clean room is a room of primarily medical function, where a definite level of cleanliness must be maintained.
Among them are:
- Operating theatres,
- Delivery rooms,
- Resuscitation wards,
- Intensive therapy and burn-treatment wards,
- Rooms for blood transfusion and preparation of blood,
- Rooms for research work in microbiology, genetics, transplantation of organs and tissues and so on.
Classes of cleanliness
Class of cleanliness is a number of strictly defined requirements concerning content of admixtures and particles in air. They differ by number of colony-forming bacteria in a unit of volume.
There are three classes of cleanliness:
- Rooms of the first class of cleanliness must have the lowest number of bacteria per m 3 – not more than 10. They are operating theatres for transplantations, for complicated orthopedics and heart surgery, intensive therapy and burn-treatment wards and leukemia treatment wards.
- Rooms of the second class of cleanliness must have a low number of bacteria per m 3 – between 50 and 200. They are operating theatres for immediate surgery, surgery departments (including corridors), delivery and labour rooms, and wards for prematurely born or traumatized children.
- Rooms of the third class of cleanliness must have the number of bacteria per m 3 between 200 and 500. They are intensive heart-therapy rooms, rooms for newborn babies, sterilization rooms, dressing rooms for children and medical treatment rooms.
Requirements for climatic systems of “clean rooms”
Technological requirements for ventilation and air conditioning systems for "clean rooms" are as following:
- To cut spread of pathogenic microorganisms, which means venting of air contaminants, supply of clean air, protection of field of operation and other contamination-risk zones from microbes contained in the air as well as prevention of air-leaks from less clean rooms.
- To maintain the needed air-parameters for patients and personnel: temperature, humidity, and motion of air, to control admixture concentration that should not be above maximum allowed concentration.
- To exclude static electricity to avoid a risk of explosion of narcotic gases.